Historic civil rights property in Gloucester restored
Referred to as by some “the cradle of the civil rights movement” the Moton house in Gloucester has been restored and is getting used to train the next generation of leaders.
More on the Moton home right here: http://hamptonroads.com/2011/02/if-civil-rights-movement-had-property-it-was-right here-
The Benchmark of Attractiveness – Overlooking the Wye Valley
The Wye Valley Region of Exceptional Normal Attractiveness (AONB Welsh: Dyffryn Gwy) is an internationally critical protected landscape straddling the border in between England and Wales. It is one particular of the most dramatic and scenic landscape areas in southern Britain.
The River Wye (Welsh: Afon Gwy) is the fifth-longest river in the United Kingdom. The upper component of the river passes by means of the settlements of Rhayader, Builth Wells and Hay-on-Wye, but the spot designated as an AONB covers 326 square kilometres (126 sq mi) surrounding a 72-kilometre (45 mi) stretch lower down the river, from just south of the city of Hereford to Chepstow.
This location covers parts of the counties of Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, and is recognised in particular for its limestone gorge scenery and dense native woodlands, as nicely as its wildlife, archaeological and industrial remains. It is also historically crucial as one particular of the birthplaces of the present day tourism sector. The location is predominantly rural, and numerous people make a living from tourism, agriculture or forestry. Ross-on-Wye is the only town inside of the AONB itself, but Hereford, Monmouth, Coleford and Chepstow lie just outside its boundaries.
The varied landscapes of the Wye Valley can be explained by underlying rocks and structures, and how ice and then the river and tributary streams have acted on them via time.
Shut to Hereford, the geology of the region around the village of Woolhope is largely manufactured up of Silurian limestones, shales and sandstones. To the south of this, the Herefordshire lowlands are largely underlain by red mudstones and sandstones, generating a redder soil. These rocks are softer than the limestones elsewhere, so the river developed much more meanders, a wider floodplain, and a gentler and more rolling landscape. About Symonds Yat, limestones and red sandstones meet. This prospects to a landscape of hills and plains, as nicely as substantial meanders which have formed extraordinary river cliffs.
The Reduced Wye landscape was formed by the river acting on a series of layers of rock that dip in direction of the Forest of Dean. Here the river has incised into the margins of the Outdated Red Sandstone plateau to kind a gorge with significant river cliffs. The steepest components of the Wye gorge are minimize by means of the Carboniferous Limestone. Right here the combined action of the river, normal joints in the rocks and quarrying have exposed numerous vertical faces, notably amongst Tintern and Chepstow.
Geological curiosity extends underground, and there are numerous rock shelters and answer caves in the location. These include King Arthur’s Cave and several other people in the location of Symonds Yat and Slaughter Stream Cave near Berry Hill. At St Arvans, near Chepstow, the underground watercourses have carved out extended cave programs, which exit at Otter Hole at the base of Piercefield cliffs – the only cave system in England or Wales which can only be reached by means of a tidal sump, producing it a mecca for knowledgeable cavers.
Lancaut and Ban-y-Gor are Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust nature reserves. They both have SSSI standing currently being part of the nationally essential Decrease Wye Gorge SSSI and inside the Wye Valley AONB. The Wye Valley is critical for its rich wildlife habitats.
The spot has 3 internet sites of worldwide value, designated as Unique Areas of Conservation (SACs) below the European Union’s Habitats Directive. These are the River Wye (Afon Gwy), the Wye Valley and Forest of Dean Bat Internet sites (Safleoedd Ystlumod Dyffryn Gwy a Fforest y Ddena) and the Wye Valley Woodlands (Coetiroedd Dyffryn Gwy). It supports a population of lesser horseshoe bats, a increasing population of peregrine falcons, goshawks, ravens, rare whitebeam, nightjar and lesser acknowledged fish like the shad and twaite. The principal Welsh populations of the modest but colourful moth Oecophora bractella are identified right here.
In September 2006 it was reported that 1 colony of lesser horseshoe bats in the location had reached record numbers, with some 890 bats in a little stone barn (599 grownups and 291 babies recorded).
The valley has been inhabited for at least twelve,000 many years. Caves near Symonds Yat and Chepstow offer evidence of settlement dating from Palaeolithic times, and finds from later stone ages such as the Neolithic have also been found. These have yielded proof of how prehistoric human populations lived as nomadic hunters and traders.
Standing stones at Huntsham, Staunton, and Trellech all have origins dating back to the Bronze Age. Later on, Iron Age forts along the reduced Wye Valley, and in the Woolhope region, took benefit of the natural hilltops and promontories to type effectively-defended settlements. It is most likely that many of these marked the edges of disputed tribal pre-Roman territories.
Watling Street ran by way of the Roman settlements of Ariconium (just north of modern day Ross-on-Wye) and Blestium (Monmouth), and a quantity of other small Roman settlements are known. The initial proof of the exploitation of iron and coal in the valley is identified in the Roman period, with iron functioning known from internet sites at Monmouth, Trellech and elsewhere, as well as in the adjoining Forest of Dean. The medieval boroughs of Goodrich and Chepstow, at each end of the Wye Gorge, may have originally been established at this time.
Closely following the River Wye, Offa’s Dyke was created in the 8th century beneath King Offa to mark out the boundary in between England and Wales and is, today, the longest archaeological monument in Britain. Offa’s Dyke Path extended distance footpath right now traces the route through the Wye valley on the English bank, although the Wye Valley Walk follows the Welsh bank.
When the Normans conquered the region in the 11th century they instantly constructed significant castles at Chepstow and Monmouth to defend the territory. Smaller sized castles have been built at St Briavels, Ruardean, Goodrich and Wilton Castle.
Tintern Abbey was founded in 1131 by Cistercian monks, and largely rebuilt in the 13th century. It is the greatest-preserved medieval abbey in Wales and an exceptional instance of Gothic architecture.
A lot of of the smaller villages in the spot almost certainly date from the Middle Ages, and much of this expansion was most likely linked with the early iron industry. The medieval iron industry consumed big quantities of charcoal and much of the woodland was coppiced for this goal. Trellech was a single of the largest communities in Wales in the course of this time period.
Iron has been created in the Wye Valley because Roman occasions, employing the ready supply of timber, very good good quality ore and abundant charcoal from the Forest of Dean. The river presented transport for the raw materials and finished product, and with the introduction of the blast furnace in the 16th century, its tributaries began to be utilised for water power.
The first brass manufactured in Britain was founded at Tintern in 1566. Wire-creating followed, with water mills located on all the tributaries of the lower Wye. The region resounded to the noise and smoke of hefty market for the up coming 400 many years and gave rise to several pioneering industries. For instance, Whitebrook grew to become well-known for paper milling, when wallpaper grew to become a fashionable way to decorate houses. At Redbrook, copper performs had been established by 1691, and a century later on the village became a single of the world’s key tinplate manufacturing centres. This business survived right up until the 1960s and was renowned for generating the thinnest, highest good quality plate in the globe. The Lydbrook valley was also a thriving centre for metal industries, this kind of as the manufacture of telegraph cables.
The valley woodlands had been cautiously managed to make mature trees for shipbuilding, or by coppicing for charcoal, and to offer bark for tanning. The valley industries were also massive buyers of timber. A ship of 150 tons, for example, required 3,000 wagonloads of timber to comprehensive – and in 1824, 13 ships have been launched at Brockweir alone.
The river was the financial backbone of the region, delivering an critical means of transport, trade and communication. In late medieval instances, salmon weirs hindered free passage on the river, but the Wye Navigation Act in 1662 enabled the river’s possible to be produced. By 1727 shallow draught boats could get upstream beyond Hereford, and a considerable shipbuilding sector created at Monmouth, Llandogo, Brockweir and Chepstow. However, by 1835 it was stated that the Wye "can scarcely be deemed a commercial highway" over Monmouth, and by the 1880s Brockweir bridge was the effective upper limit of navigation.
As the 19th century progressed, the valley’s industries slowly declined, and management of the woodlands lessened when there was no longer a ready market for their items.
For further data please visit en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wye_Valley
The Forest of Dean is a geographical, historical and cultural region in the western part of the county of Gloucestershire, England. It varieties a roughly triangular plateau bounded by the River Wye to the west and north-west, Herefordshire to the north, the River Severn to the south, and the City of Gloucester to the east.
The spot is characterised by much more than 110 square kilometres (42.5 sq mi) of mixed woodland, one of the surviving ancient woodlands in England. A large area was reserved for royal hunting just before 1066, and remained as the second largest crown forest in England, the greatest being New Forest. Although the title is employed loosely to refer to the element of Gloucestershire between the Severn and Wye, the Forest of Dean suitable has covered a a lot smaller area given that medieval occasions. In 1327 it was defined to cover only the royal demesne and elements of parishes within the hundred of St Briavels, and following 1668 comprised the royal demesne only. The Forest correct is inside the civil parishes of West Dean, Lydbrook, Cinderford, Ruspidge, and Drybrook, collectively with a strip of land in the parish of English Bicknor.
Typically the main sources of work have been forestry – like charcoal manufacturing – iron operating and coal mining. Archaeological research have dated the earliest use of coal to Roman instances for domestic heating and industrial processes such as the preparation of iron ore.
The location offers its name to the regional government district, Forest of Dean, and a parliamentary constituency, both of which cover wider regions than the historic Forest. The administrative centre of the nearby authority is Coleford, 1 of the primary towns in the historic Forest region, together with Cinderford and Lydney.
For even more info please go to en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_of_Dean
By antonychammond on 2016-eleven-18 20:16:01
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